Salinity tolerance mechanisms in glycophytes: An overview with the central focus on rice plants
1 Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda, Nagano, 386-8567, Japan
2 Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, 930-8555, Japan
3 Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, 20-1, Chuo-2-chome, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-0046, Japan
Rice 2012, 5:11 doi:10.1186/1939-8433-5-11Published: 22 June 2012
Elevated Na+ levels in agricultural lands are increasingly becoming a serious threat to the world agriculture. Plants suffer osmotic and ionic stress under high salinity due to the salts accumulated at the outside of roots and those accumulated at the inside of the plant cells, respectively. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants have been extensively studied and in the recent years these studies focus on the function of key enzymes and plant morphological traits. Here, we provide an updated overview of salt tolerant mechanisms in glycophytes with a particular interest in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. Protective mechanisms that prevent water loss due to the increased osmotic pressure, the development of Na+ toxicity on essential cellular metabolisms, and the movement of ions via the apoplastic pathway (i.e. apoplastic barriers) are described here in detail.